Brazill, S. (2019). The Relationship of Gender, School Attendance, and Grade Level with ACT English and Composite Test Scores. In G. Marks (Ed.), Proceedings of Global Learn 2019-Global Conference on Learning and Technology (pp. 64-69). Princeton-Mercer, New Jersey: Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved October 6, 2020 from https://www.learntechlib.org/primary/p/210291/ [learntechlib.org].
Factors that predict ACT science scores from a multicultural perspective. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 30(2), 1-16.
His study investigated predictors for ACT Science scores, a test used by many universities to rank applicants. This study utilized quantitative research methods using the Montana Office of Public Instruction’s GEMS (Growth and Enhancement of Montana Students) data set. All advanced statistical analysis was conducted using Stata software IC/15. This research is significant for increasing the representation of under-represented groups in STEM education because it helps clarify three important relationships: (1) How well do gender, race, and meal status predict 11th grade ACT Science scores; (2) How well does school size predict 11th grade ACT Science scores while controlling for gender, race, and meal status; and (3) How well does high school GPA predict 11th grade ACT Science scores while controlling for gender, race, meal status, and school size.
This manuscript utilized quantitative research methods to analyze the Montana Office of Public Instruction’s GEMS (Growth and Enhancement of Montana Students) dataset. This research is important because it helps clarify three important relationships: (1) Is there a statistically significant difference in the average 11th grade English scores between males and females; (2) Does the number of days present at school influence students’ 11th grade ACT composite scores; and (3) Do individual students’ ACT English scores improve from 11th grade to 12th grade.
Brazill, S. C. (2020). Race and gender factors in ACT English and composite scores. Educational Research: Theory and Practice, 32(1), 17-28.
This study utilized quantitative research methods using the Montana Office of Public Instruction’s Growth and Enhancement of Montana Students (GEMS) data set. This quantitative research is important because it provides insight on the following relationships (1) Is there a statistically significant difference among students from different races on their mean 11th grade ACT English scores?; (2) Is there an interaction between gender and race on students’ mean 11th grade ACT English scores?; and (3) Is there a statistically significant difference among American Indian students mean ACT composite score from their Junior to their Senior year.
Paper Title: The Effects of State Mandated Financial Education on College Financial Behavior
Authors: Christina Stoddard, PhD & Carly Urban, PhD
Affiliation: Department of Economics, Montana State University
Funded by: Montana Office of Public Instruction and the National Endowment for Financial Education
This paper, which also has been adapted into an executive summary, examines the effect of high school personal finance graduation requirements on student decisions about how to finance college. Personal finance requirements exist in many different forms in twenty-five states. The authors conduct an analysis to evaluate the factors that affect financial decision making during their freshman year. They compare students that are in states with those requirements to students in states where financial education is not required for graduation. Montana is examined in a case study as a state which does not have state required financial education. The analyses are informed by data from the National Post-Secondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS), Current Population Survey (CPS), Integrated Post-Secondary Education Data Systems (IPEDS), and data from the Montana Office of Public Instruction and the Montana University System.
The analysis uses data from 25 states. This approach is used “to compare incoming freshman at four year institutions from states with personal finance requirement before and after implementing the requirement to comparable students whose states lack a mandate” (Stoddard & Urban,2018, p. 2).
Stoddard & Urban (2018, p.1) suggest the following findings from their study:
- Financial education graduation requirements shift students from high-cost to low-cost financing behaviors.
- Requirements increase federal aid applications and acceptance of low cost federal student loans.
- Requirements decrease the likelihood of students holding credit card balances.
- Students from less affluent family backgrounds further reduce their likelihoods of working while enrolled.
- Borrowers from more affluent backgrounds reduce private loan amounts.
- The mandates do not change college attendance or choice of institution type.
The data from Montana suggest:
- There are no statistical differences across students in schools that do and do not offer personal finance course (Stoddard & Urban, 2018, p. 14)
- There are no visible patterns in schools offering and not offering financial education based on their geography or distance from main highways in the state (Ibid).
- School choices to add a personal finance course are idiosyncratic (Stoddard & Urban, 2018, p. 32).
- There are no statistical differences in having subsidized Stafford loans, having unsubsidized Stafford loans or having a grant (Ibid).
There are several implications to the study. Personal finance graduation requirements improve student financial behaviors in college. The benefits may extend beyond college financing decision. The report may be downloaded from the GEMS website.
"College Enrollment and STEM Major Choice in a Rural State: A Statewide Examination of Recent High School Cohorts, examined both institution type enrollment (2-year v. 4-year) and college major selection (STEM v. non-STEM) using the GEMS random data set of high school cohorts graduating in 2013-2017. The data set was released under a cooperation among the Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education, the OPI, and Dr. Fenqjen Luo at the Department of Education, MSU. We are only reporting findings for students who stayed in Montana for college. The study examined 3,119 students and found that Montana students are more likely to enroll into a 4-year institution than a 2-year institution (79.6% v. 20.4%). Also, students who enrolled at a 4-year institution are more likely to consider a STEM major than students at a 2-year institution. When examining institution type, significant explanatory variables included high school GPA, ACT STEM score, ACT English score, free/reduced-price lunch participation, and race/ethnicity. An interesting finding showed that American Indian/Alaska Native students were more likely to enroll into a 4-year institution than White students. When examining major choice, only high school GPA, ACT STEM score, gender, and institution type were significant predictors of selecting a major in a STEM field. Specifically, male students were over three times as likely to select a major in a STEM field when compared to their female counterparts. The authors also discuss limitations and recommendations for future research. The study is currently under review in Theory & Practice in Rural Education.
This research was conducted at MSU by two doctoral students, Que N. Tran and Monte Meyerink, and two faculty members, Dr. Alexandra Aylward and Dr. Fenqjen Luo. Additionally, we acknowledge the excellent support from Dr. Robin Clausen at OPI and OCHE during this research project. This research was funded by the grant, "Collaborative for Continuous Improvement in Education: Montana GEMS Data and the K-16 Pathway," from the Montana Office of Public Instruction for the College of Education, Health, and Human Development, MSU during the academic years 2017-2019 (Dr. Tricia Seifert, Principal Investigator).
Obery, A., Sletten, J., Vallor, R. & Schmitt-Wilson, S. (2020) Data Driven Decision Making in Teacher Education: Perceptions of Pre-Service Teachers and Faculty Who Teach Them, Action in Teacher Education, DOI: 10.1080/01626620.2020.1762139 [doi.org]
Integrating data driven decision making into teacher preparation programs has been called for by several researchers in order to help lessen the barriers teachers face in using data in their teaching. This mixed methods study examined the perceptions of data use in education by pre-service teachers (N = 112) and perceived knowledge and skills required for successful use from both pre-service teachers (N = 6) and the faculty who educate them (N = 5). Results have implications for teacher preparation programs considering data literacy integration and for researchers aiming to understand the best ways to encourage data driven decision-making skills and knowledge in pre-service teachers.
Urban, C., Carruthers, C. K., Dougherty, S., Goldring, T., Kreisman, D., & Theobald, R. (2022). A multi-state analysis of trends in career and technical education: Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Tennessee, and Washington. Georgia Policy Labs. https://gpl.gsu.edu/?wpdmdl=2704 [nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com] [nam10.safelinks.protection.outlook.com]
This report seeks to understand changes in CTE concentration just before and just after the pandemic began using administrative data across five states: Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Tennessee, and Washington. The study explores how and where CTE concentration substantively changed across cohorts and by CTE concentration clusters at the start of the pandemic, including by student characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, and for students with identified disabilities. In addition, the study explores CTE concentration by urbanicity where comparisons between rural students and students in urban areas reveal differences in some states. Lastly, high school graduation rates of CTE concentrators in these states are explored before and after the start of the pandemic.
For Montana specific findings visit: https://gpl.gsu.edu/publications/trends-in-cte-in-montana/
As a uniquely rural state that requires a minimum of 1 CTE credit for a high school graduation diploma, Montana reveals interesting trends for CTE concentrators. In particular, roughly half of Montana high school students are CTE concentrators where participation is largely of rural, male students across the state. In addition, this study reveals that students who concentrated in CTE were more likely to graduate high school than non-concentrators, especially for students with identified disabilities and those living in rural areas.